Why did the Lucknow pact come about?
Several reasons led to the signing of the Lucknow Pact in 1916.
Firstly, the reversal of the partition of Bengal had led to poor relations between the British and the Muslims, as they (Muslims) saw the reversal of Partition as a betrayal of British promises that the original partition was final. They also realized that the Morley-Minto reforms did not provide Indians with any genuine voice in the government of their country. Despite the attempts to work with the British since the days of Sir Syed, Muslims now lost faith in the British to allow them any real political power. These poor relations led ML to declare its aim of self-government. This declaration brought the Muslim League and Congress together, making them sign the Lucknow pact.
Secondly, Jinnah stressed that India’s real progress can only be achieved by true and harmonious relations between the two. So due to his persuasion, both of the parties held their annual sessions in 1916, in Lucknow. It was largely because of Jinnah’s support that the Lucknow pact was drawn up. It showed clearly that Congress was prepared to work with ML, as, for the first time, it agreed that Muslims had the right to separate electorates; moreover, congress also agreed to 1/3 seats to be given to councils.
Thirdly, the pact was drawn solely to put forward their joint demands to the British as to how India should be governed. They asked for an increase in the number of elected seats in the councils, and all provinces to have provincial autonomy. It was all because of the reason, that both realized that cooperation was the only way to get the British government to agree to self-rule.
So, because of these reasons, the Lucknow was signed in December 1916.